Carter, 29, will be under Brewers' control for three seasons after being non-tendered by Houston last month. He was arbitration-eligible for the second time as a Super Two player, meaning that he will not be eligible for free agency until after the 2018 season.
Carter will likely see significant time at first base for a Brewers team that recently dealt Adam Lind to the Mariners and Jason Rogers to the Pirates. Milwaukee has been known to be looking for first base help at the position all winter, and may still look to add a left-handed complement to Carter.
In 129 games for the Astros last season, Carter hit .199/.307/.427 with 24 home runs and 64 RBI. He has always been able to hit for power, tallying 109 home runs in 528 major-league games with the Athletics (2010-12) and Astros (2013-15).